King of Persia and Babylonia (522). Mostly known through the Bisitun Inscription, his true identity remains unclear. Likely son of Cyrus II and brother of Cambyses II, Bardia has been associated with Smerdis/Gaumata allegedly two Magus brothers which rebelled against Cambyses and took the throne by posing one of them as the real Bardia who had been reportedly killed by order of Cambyses.
King of Babylonia (555-539). He succeeded Lâbâši-Marduk after a court conspiracy. The Akkadian form of his name is Nabû-nā’id. Nabonidus was a mature man when he came to power, and, according to his inscriptions (Adad-Guppi stele), he served under the previous Babylonian monarchs. It has been suggested that Nabonidus is to be identified with Herodutus’ “Labinetus the Babylonian” who reportedly intervene in a peace treaty between the Lydians and the Persians. Nabonidus was very active in promoting several building projects and campaigning in Syria and in Arabia. Effectively, he was the last king of the Neo-Babylonian Empire being defeated and captured by the Persians at Babylon in 539 BCE.
King of Babylonia (556). Son and successor of Neriglissar. Lâbâši-Marduk ruled for a very short period (ca. of a month) and was not recognized by the entire kingdom.
King of Babylonia (559-556). The Akkadian form of his name is Nergal-šarru-uṣur. He succeeded Amīl-Marduk after killing him. He was probably a simmagir-official during the reign of Nebuchadnezzar. Neriglissar is attested in the Uruk King List and a chronicle concerning his third year.
King of Babylonia (561-560). Also known by the biblical name Evil-Merodach. His short reign went down in history as a turbulent period, a notion enshrined on an epic now bearing his name. According to Berossus, he was killed by his brother-in-law and successor.
King of Babylonia (604-562). Son and successor of Nabopolassar. The Akkadian form of his name is Nabû-kudurru-uṣur. He was the longest-reigning king in the Neo-Babylonian Empire. He is attested in the Chronicles (ABC 4, ABC 5), and the Uruk King List. He also occurs in the Bible: in the Book of Daniel (Dan 1 to 4) and in the Book of Jeremiah (Jer 21 to 37).
King of Babylonia (626-605) and founder of the Neo-Babylonian Empire. The Akkadian form of his name is Nabû-aplu-uṣur. He established himself as king of Babylonia in 626 BCE after a period of instability following the death of Assurbanipal. He is attested in the Chronicles (ABC 2, ABC 3, ABC 4, ABC 5), the Akītu Chronicle, and the Uruk King List. There is also an epic based on his reign.
Commonly known as “Alexandre the Great” or Magnus, he succeeded his father Philippe II in the throne of Macedon in 336. Immediately after, Alexander embarked on an eleven-years conquest of the Persian Empire, defeating Darius III at Granicus, Issus and Gaugamela, conquering Babylon in 331 and eventually reaching the Punjab in 325. He is attested in the Astronomical Diaries.
Nominally King of Babylonia and Macedonia (323-316). Son of Phillipe II of Macedon and half-brother of Alexander the Great, his birth name was Arrhidaeus. Unfit to rule, he was recognized as the successor of Alexander under the regency of Perdiccas until the aftermath of the Third Diadochi War. He is attested in several cuneiform sources including the Hellenistic King List, and the Uruk King List.
Nominally King of Babylonia (323-306). Successor of his father Alexander the Great, he ascended to the throne under the regency of Cassander. He was eventually killed in the context of the Third Diadochi War. He is attested in several cuneiform sources including the Hellenistic King List, the Chronicle of the Diadochi.